2011年12月29日 星期四


前言:19世紀,美國拓展領土已達北美洲西北角,當地居住著許多印地安部落。美國政府欲以15萬美元買下位於現今華盛頓州普傑峽灣(Puget Sound of Washington)的二百萬英畝土地。當時,索瓜米希族(Suquamish)的酋長西雅圖(Chief Seattle, or Seathl)答以一篇動人與意味深遠的聲明,闡述了人與土地、 萬物密不可分的關係。這篇聲明發生的時間約在1851年。本篇現今被公認是環境保育上極重要的一份聲明。

How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us. If we do not own the freshness of the air and the sparkle of the water, how can you buy them?

Every part of the Earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, every sandy shore, every mist in the dark woods, every clear and humming insect is holy in the memory and experience of my people. The sap which courses through the trees carries the memory of red man.

The white man's dead forget the country of their birth when they go to walk among the stars. Our dead never forget this beautiful Earth, for it is the mother of the red man. We are part of the Earth and it is part of us. The perfumed flowers are our sisters, the deer, the horse, the great eagle, these are our brothers. The rocky crests, the juices in the meadows, the body heat of the pony, and the man, all belong to the same family.
當白人的鬼魂在繁星之中遊蕩時,他們早已遺忘他們出生的家園。但我們的靈魂從不曾忘懷這片美麗的大地,因為她是紅人的母親。我們是大地的一部份,並且大地 也是我們的一部份。芳香的花朵是我們的姊妹,鹿兒,馬群和雄鷹都是我們的兄弟。高峻的岩峰,草原上的露水,小馬身上溫熱的體溫,還有人類,都是屬於同一個 家族。

So, when the Great Chief in Washington sends word that he wishes to buy our land, he asks much of us. The Great White Chief sends word he will reserve us a place so that we can live comfortably to ourselves. He will be our father and we will be his children.

So we will consider your offer to buy land. But it will not be easy. For this land is sacred to us. This shining water that moves in streams and rivers is not just water but the blood of our ancestors. If we sell you land, you must remember that it is sacred, and you must teach your children that it is sacred and that each ghostly reflection in the clear water of the lakes tells of events in the life of my people. The waters murmur is the voice of my father's father.
因此,我們得考慮你們購買土地的要求。但,這並不容易!因為這塊土地對我們而言是神聖的。在小溪與河川中流動的,並不只是波光淋漓的水,也是我們祖先們的 血液。倘若我們把土地賣給你們,你們必需要記住,這是神聖的土地。而你們也一定要教導你們的子孫,它是聖潔的,每一片清澈湖水的朦朧倒影裡,都述說一個故事及我們族人生活中的點點回憶。那河水嗚咽的彽迴,是我先袓們的聲音。

The rivers of our brothers they quench our thirst. The rivers carry our canoes and feed our children. If we sell you our land, you must remember to teach your children that the rivers are our brothers, and yours, and you must henceforth give the rivers the kindness that you would give my brother.

We know that the white man does not understand our ways. One portion of land is the same to him as the next, for he is a stranger who comes in the night and takes from the land whatever he needs. The Earth is not his brother, but his enemy and when he has conquered it, he moves on. He leaves his father's graves behind, and he does not care. He kidnaps the Earth from his children, and he does not care. His father's grave, and his children's birthright are forgotten. He treats his mother, the Earth, and his brother, the same, as things to be bought, plundered, sold like sheep or bright beads. His appetite will devour the Earth and leave behind only a desert.
我們知道白人無法瞭解我們的想法。任何一片土地對他們而言,都是一樣的。因為他是個異鄉客,在夜幕低垂時偷偷來襲,從土地上拿走任何他想要的東西。大地不 是他的兄弟,而是他的敵人,當他征服之後,旋即離去。他無視於祖先的墳地,他不在乎。他剝奪了子孫們的土地,一點都不在乎祖先們的勞苦與後代生存的權力。 他對待他的母親--大地,以及兄弟,就如同對待綿羊與耀眼的首飾一樣,隨意地買賣與掠奪。他的貪婪將毀滅大地, 而最後留下來的, 將只是一片荒蕪。

I do not know. Our ways are different from yours ways. The sight of your cities pains the eyes of the red man. But perhaps it is because the red man is a savage and does not understand. There is no quiet place in the white man's cities. No place to hear the unfurling of leaves in spring, or the rustle of an insect's wings. But perhaps it is because I am a savage and do not understand. The clatter only seems to insult the ears. And what is there to life if a man cannot hear the lonely cry of a whippoorwill or the arguments of the frogs around a pond at night. I am a red man and do not understand. The Indian prefers the soft sound of the wind darting over the face of the pond, and the smell of the wind itself, cleansed by a midday rain, or scented with the pinon pine.
我真的不懂,我們之間的生活方式是如此不同。你們城市的景象刺痛了紅人們的眼睛。但也許因為紅人們是野蠻人所以無法理解吧!在白人的城鎮裡找不到些許寧靜 的角落。沒有一個地方能聽到春天枝葉迎風招展的聲音,或是蟲兒展翅高飛的歡鳴。也許因為我是個野蠻人所以無法理解吧!那些喧鬧聲聽來只會傷害我們的耳朵。 假如不能聽到夜鷹孤寂的叫聲,或是夜晚池畔的蛙鳴。那是一種什麼樣的生活呢?我是紅人,所以不明白。印地安人喜歡微風拂過池面的輕柔細語,以及被午後陣雨 所洗淨,或是被松林所薰香的風的味道。

The air is precious to the red man, for all things share the same breath - the beast, the tree, the man, they all share the same breath. The white man does not seem to notice the air he breathes. Like a man dying for many days, he is numb to the stench. But if we sell you our land, you must remember that the air is precious to us that the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports.

The wind that gave our grandfather his first breath also receives his last sigh. And if we sell you our land, you must keep it apart and sacred, as a place where even the white man can go to taste the wind that is sweetened by the meadow's flowers. So we will consider your offer to buy our land. If we decide to accept, I will make one condition - the white man must treat the beasts of this land as his brothers. I am a savage and do not understand any other way. I have seen a thousand rotting buffaloes on the prairie, left by the white man who shot them from a passing train. I am a savage and do not understand how the smoking iron horse can be made more important than the buffalo that we kill only to stay alive. What is man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, man would die from a great loneliness of the spirit. For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected.
風,送來了我們祖先的第一口氣,也帶走了他們最後一聲的嘆息。假如我們將這土地賣給了你們,你們務必維持祂的獨特與聖潔,使祂成為一塊即使是白人也可以品 嘗,帶有花草薰香之風的地方。所以,我們得考慮你們的要求。假如我們接受的話,我有一個條件,那就是白人必需對待大地上的野獸如同自已的兄弟一般。我只是 個野蠻人,並不瞭解其它的想法。我曾經目睹被路過火車上的白人所射殺的千萬頭野牛,牠們的屍體被棄置於大草原之上任其腐敗。我只是個野蠻人,無法明白這冒 著煙的鐵馬居然會比我們為了生存而殺死的野牛更為重要。人在沒有了野獸之後會變得怎麼樣呢?倘若所有的動物都消失了,人類將死於心靈最深處的空虛寂寞。現 在發生在野獸身上的事,很快地就會發生在人類的身上。所有的一切都是相互關連的。

You must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is the ashes of our grandfathers. So that they will respect the land, tell your children that the Earth is rich with the lives of our kin. Teach your children what we have taught our children, that the Earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the Earth befalls the sons of the Earth. If men spit upon the ground, they spit upon themselves.
你們必須教導你們的子孫,在他們腳下的土地,是我們先民的遺蹟。因此,他們才會尊敬這塊土地,告訴你們的孩子們,因為有著我們生命的存在,才使得大地更加 地豐富。教導你們的孩子,大地是我們的母親,我們向來如此教育著我們的子孫。任何發生在大地身上的,都會同樣地降臨在大地的孩子身上。假如人們唾棄了大 地,事實上他們就是唾棄了自己。

This we know - the Earth does not belong to man - man belongs to the Earth. This we know. All things are connected like the blood, which unites one family. All things are connected. Whatever befalls the Earth - befalls the sons of the Earth. Man did not weave the web of life - he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. Even the white man, whose God walks and talks with him as friend to friend, cannot be exempt from the common destiny. We may be brothers after all. We shall see. One thing we know, which the white man may one day discover - Our God is the same God.
我們知道,大地不隸屬於人類,而人類屬於大地。我們知道,每一件事物都是有關連的,就好像血緣緊緊維繫著一家人。所有的一切都是相互有著關連的。現在發生 在大地的事,也必將降臨到她的孩子,人類身上來。人類並不是編織生命之網的主宰,他只不過是微不足道的一絲線而已。他對這個網絡做了什麼,都會回應到自己 身上。雖然白人的上帝與他並肩齊步,和他交談一如兩位朋友,但白人也無法豁免於相同的命運。畢竟,我們都是兄弟。我們知道一件事,終有一天我們會看到,白 人將會發現我們的上帝是同一個!

You may think now that you own Him as you wish to own our land, but you cannot. He is the God of man, and His compassion is equal for red man and the white. The Earth is precious to Him, and to harm the Earth is to heap contempt on its Creator. The whites too shall pass, perhaps sooner than all other tribes. Contaminate your bed, and you will one night suffocate in your own waste.
你們現在也許認為,因為你們擁有神,所以也可以占有我們的土地,但是不能這樣。祂是眾人的神,祂的慈悲平等地分享給紅人與白人。大地對祂而言是珍貴的,對 大地的傷害,是對造物主的輕蔑。白人也終將滅絕,甚至有可能比其它種族還快。如果你弄髒了自己的環境,總有一天會窒息在你所丟棄的垃圾之中。(害了自己的 生存環境,總有一天會自食惡果)

But in your perishing you will shine brightly, fired by the strength of the God who brought you to this land and for some special purpose gave you dominion over this land and over the red man.

That destiny is a mystery to us, for we do not understand when the buffalo are slaughtered, the wild horses tamed, the secret corners of the forest heavy with scent of many men, and the view of the ripe hills blotted by talking wires.
這樣的命運對我們來說真是神秘難解。尤其當野牛被屠殺,野馬被訓服,森林中最隱密的角落也充斥了人味,原始的山陵景象被電話線所破壞。 (我們真是不明白啊!)

Where is the thicket? Gone.Where is the Eagle? Gone.The end of living and the beginning of survival. 叢林哪兒去了?消失了!老鷹哪兒去了?不見了!美好的生活已經結束,苟延求生的日子正要開始!